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2,4-Dinitrophenol is a synthetic aromatic nitrogen compound. It is primarily used as an antiseptic, but has a number of uses in industry, in the manufacture of explosives and herbicides, and it is con
2-aminoisoheptane is a relatively new stimulant that has begun to appear in a range of pre workout supplements and is said to be a suitable replacement to AMP Citrate as well as the banned...
5-HTP, or 5-hydroxytryptophan, is an amino acid which the body makes naturally from tryptophan, another amino acid which we ingest as part of the protein in food. It is a precursor to the neurotran...
7-Keto is a compound produced by the metabolism of the steroid prohormone dyhydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). t is biologically active and has been said that 7-keto can help with weight loss through incr..
7-Keto is widely used as a weight loss supplement. This thermogenic compound is included in a number of fat loss formulations and is also sold as a stand alone product. It has attracted a lot of...
What is AAKG? AAKG, or Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate, is a salt made up of amino acid arginine, and metabolic intermediate alpha-ketoglutarate. It is a popular supplement, particularly before a...
AMP citrate is a compound by many names. Some may refer to it as methylpentanamine, while others call it 1,3-dimethylbutylamine. Whatever it is called, there’s one thing that is certain, this compound
Over the past few years, AMP Citrate has become a popular ingredient in pre workouts and weight loss formulations. Scientifically, it is known as methylpentanamine, 4-amino-2-methylpentane citrate...
Acacia rigidula extract is an ingredient that is used in a number of pre-workouts and weight loss supplements. Hailed by many people as the new DMAA, it is attracting some...
Acacia rigidula, also known as Vachellia rigidula, is an ingredient with an intriguing and controversial history. The tree from which the extract is taken is native to the southern United States...
Acai is a berry super food that has exploded onto the health food scene recently. It is packed full of potentially health promoting nutrients, some of which are well known among the scientific...
Acetyl-l-carnitine is made in the body from l-carnitine. In addition to boosting l-carnitine, it has been shown to have additional separate effects from l-carnitine, particularly on neural function...
Acidophilus is a species of bacteria belonging to the Lactobacillus genus. They are probiotics and are considered to be good bacteria because they help fight off bad bacteria in the digestive system..
What is African Mango? African Mango, also known as Bush Mango or Irvingia is a native mango species to Africa and Southeast Asia. The trees themselves are valued for their mango like fruits as...
What is Agave? Agave syrup, or agave nectar, is an alternative sweetener produced from the sap of the agave plant. Agave is very high in fructose, the simple sugar found in fruit. Fructose does not...
What is Agmatine? Agmatine is a compound that is normally produced in the human body through a process in which l-arginine is decarboxylated and transformed into Agmatine. Since the compound first...
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) or lucerne, is a nutritious legume plant that looks similar to clover. It is used extensively in agriculture as an animal feed. However, the sprouts and leaves of alfalfa...
Aloe vera is a succulent plant belonging to the Liliaceal family, of which there are more than 360 species. Aloe vera is a common name for Aloe barbadensis, the most widely used species of aloe.
Alpha lipoic acid has been studied for a range of medical uses. However, what may be of most interest to us is that it shows huge promise in being able to promote strength and lean gains through its..
AKG is a well-proven, versatile and highly effective supplement. In athletes and patients, AKG spares glutamine, thus enhancing its synthesis and availability.
Amentoflavone is a plant alkaloid which is found naturally in a number of different plants, including Gingko biloba and St John's Wort. Initial research has shown that this naturally occurring...
What Are Amino Acids? Amino acids are essentially the building blocks of protein, which are required for many important functions and processes within the human body. There are 22 standard amino...
Amino Acids – What Are They? Amino acids are a class of biologically active organic molecules. They all have a basic structure for which they are named – the carbon backbone has a...
Commonly referred to as the "building block of proteins"; amino acids come in all shapes and size. And to the lay consumer or novice supplement user, it can be a bit of a minefield trying to get...
Ther term "amino acid" is used to describe a class of compound containing both an amino group and an organic acid. Amino acids have a huge variety of roles that support health and wellbeing, and...
Amino acids are often called the "Building Blocks of Protein" because the body makes proteins by putting specific combinations of amino acids together into long chains. Amino acids are therefore...
Buying supplements is never easy, especially secondary supplements such as amino acids, creatine, BCAAs and glutamine. But which one is better? Learn more about amino acid supplements and how they...
Amino acids and proteins both have an important place in muscle building and fitness supplementation. They both serve many functions including, most importantly, maintaining the positive nitrogen...
Androsterone, also known as 1-DHEA, 1-Androsterone or 1-Andro, is a steroid prohormone that is metabolised into a form of testosterone known as 1-testosterone, or dihydroboldenone, in the body...
Raspberry Ketones have been one of the more exciting new ingredients in the last few years. There is a mounting pile of evidence showing these this fruit-derived compounds may prevent the...
Anthocyanins are a group of water soluble pigments found in most types of plant. They are responsible for the bright blues, purples and reds found in many fruits, vegetables and flowers...
Oxidation can cause cell death, which can lead to many diseases and reductions in exercise performance. Antioxidants can help to reduce cell damage, and hence speed up recovery and provide other...
Apple Cider Vinegar also known as ACV is a type of vinegar which is a popular food ingredient for a range of salad dressings, vinaigrettes, marinades, chutneys and other food items but has also...
Arachidonic acid is one of the major omega 6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In the body is involved in both cellular signaling through the cell membranes, as well as acting as an inflammatory...
Arginine is an amino acid that has been investigated for its potential properties in enhancing athletic performance. It is of interest to bodybuilders as it may increase "the pump", as well as...
There are a few things most bodybuilders don’t like. Smallness, 5 guys standing around the one machine and taking 30 minutes to complete one set, excessive grunting, excessive hissing, people who...
What is Artichoke Extract? Artichoke extract is simply a dehydrated form of the commonly eaten vegetable, the artichoke. Where Does Artichoke Extract Come From? Artichoke is grown from a species of...
Ashwaganda (Withania somnifera) or Indian ginseng has been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine, and has been reported to have benefits including improving physical performance, provid..
Withania somnifera is a well-known adaptogenic herb that also goes by the name of ashwagandha or Indian ginseng. It has a history of use in Ayurvedic medicine but as far as bodybuilding goes, it...
Most people tend to take supplements during the day, however, to really up the ante when it comes to your results, a night time supplement may be just what you need. There are a couple of...
Pre workouts are pretty fantastic supplements. While they’re often underestimated, they can really help boost training performance and results including strength, power, endurance and pump. One of...
The sports science community has been promoting creatine supplements for decades now, but it is still one of those supplements that confuses people the most. In this week’s Q & A, we take a look at...
Astaxanthin – What Is It?   Astaxanthin. It may be a mouthful to say, but recently this compound has had increasing interest in the health and nutrition world. Found in algae, salmon, krill, trout,...
Astragalus is a flowering plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in the practise, generally for increasing the metabolism and sweating, improving...
What is Avena Sativa? Avena Sativa is the latin name for the common oat, an annual grass grown for its edible grain. The seeds and stems are typically used. How Has Avena Sativa Been Commonly...
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are an incredibly popular category of supplements for both strength and endurance athletes. If your reading this article, there’s a very good chance you know...
You may be wondering why it is that there seems to be a large variety of supplements that are not available for sale in Australia. There are many reasons for why this may be true, but many of these...
Known better for its endurance performance –enhancing properties, more recent studies have started to look at how the naturally-occurring nitrate in beetroot might help boost anaerobic measures...
There’s plenty of research making a sound case for hefty doses of beetroot juice improving performance for your average endurance athlete. But of the three most popular endurance sports (i.e....
Research on beetroot juice has traditionally focused on its effects in endurance athletes. But a new study has suggested bodybuilders and strength athletes may stand to benefit from the nature’s...
There’s been a wealth of research published in the last decade on the beneficial effects of nitrate supplementation (predominantly in the form of beetroot) on different aspects of exercise...
What is Berberine? Berberine is a compound that is commonly found in plants based in Asia and have long been used as a all purpose remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine. A...
What are Milk Protein Supplements? Milk Protein Supplements emulate the pure repairing benefits of natural mother’s milk. Milk protein powders use effective fats, balanced with proteins, to make...
Natural Protein powders are exactly what they sound like – protein powders manufactured without artificial ingredients such as colours, flavours, sweeteners or preservatives. Additionally, these...
Creatine is one of the oldest and best known sports supplements on the market. Searching the scientific literature will uncover thousands upon thousands of articles attesting to the performance...
There are many types of protein enjoying success on the market, and they cover a wide array of properties, for example, some proteins have a better amino acid spectrum while others are easier to...
Beta alanine is one of the more popular sports supplements on the market. It is a non-proteinogenic, non-essential amino acid that along with histidine, makes up carnosine. Carnosine acts as a...
Beta Alanine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which means it is not used by the body to produce protein. It is best known as the limiting ingredient in the body's production of carnosine, and...
Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid that classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which means it is not involved in protein synthesis and thus does not naturally occur in proteins as a...
With a multitude of studies supporting it efficacy for improving performance in a wide variety of sports involving intermittent high intensity, there is little debate as to beta-alanine’s...
A review of beta-alanine supplementation including key facts to maximise the benefits and minimise the side-effects of beta-alanine for training and competition.
Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine is an important naturally occurring amino acid in the body that has a variety of functions. It is most well-known for its function as an osmolyte...
What is Bilberry? Commonly referred to as the European blueberry (and with species name Vaccinium myrtillus L.); bilberry is a low-growing shrub of the Ericaceae family1, 2. The berries are tasty,...
BioPerine is used in sports supplements to enhance the bioavailability of nutrients through increased absorption. BioPerine or black pepper extract contains the active compound piperine, which is
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that is generally classified as a B-complex vitamin. Biotin is required at the active site of five enzymes in the human body, collectively known as ‘carboxylases’.
Black Cohosh is an unusual looking plant, with leaves up to a metre long, a thick knotted root system and protruding rhizomes from the ground. It has numerous alternate...
Black rice, also known as purple rice and forbidden rice, has been around for thousands of years, but has recently risen the ranks in popularity to the point where people are calling it a superfood...
Not just for vegetarians, the benefits of the humble soybean have been known to most nutrition-conscious people for a long time now. Black soybeans have recently been...
There has been huge and increasing interest in botanically derived substances amongst western scientists in the past few decades, with a particular focus on plants that have a history of use in....
What is Borage Oil? Borage oil is a plant oil containing the highest known natural concentration (26-38%) of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Borage oil is made up of a number of other fatty acids,...
Boron is an ‘ultra-trace’ element, meaning it is needed by the body in indescribably small amounts. In a laboratory setting it is difficult even to induce a deficiency in rats – it’s necessary to...
What is Boswellia? Boswellia is a genus of trees native to tropical areas in Africa and Asia and whose fragrant resins have long been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for a whole host of...
Brahmi is considered a nootropic agent, which is the term given to a drug that improves mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration.
Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) consist of Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine. They are essential amino acids as humans cannot survive unless these amino acids form part of the diet.
Bryonia Laciniosa is a herb that is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac and an anti-ageing supplement. It has since gathered interest as a possible testosterone support...
What is Burdock?  Burdock is a name that refers to a number of plants from the Arctium genus, but is more specifically used to describe Arctium lappa, also known as Greater or Edible Burdock. The...
Formally named cytidine-5-diphosphocholine, but also commonly called citicoline in the medical literature, CDP-choline (as it is most often abbreviated) is a naturally...
What is Cacao? Cacao is also known as the cocoa bean or the cacao bean. In spite of their identical origins and confusingly similar names, cacao and cocoa are two different products. Cacao is...
Tea or Coffee? Tea and coffee are two of the most widely consumed drinks in the world. But besides the taste and its ability to wake us up, is there something in these two drinks which may be...
Caffeine is arguably the most studied and proven ergogenic aid in the field of sports nutrition. But caffeine is also unique in that there are so many variables that affect an individual’s response...
We all throw back our pre workouts loaded with caffeine day-in-day-out on the assumption that it will help us lift more. So it’s nice to see studies surface from time to time which confirm some of...
One of the most commonly stressed nutrients for bodybuilding and fat reduction is protein. However, something novel to consider is calcium intake. Calcium is a mineral found in dairy products and...
What is calcium citrate and what are its benefits? We take a look at how calcium citrate is made and how it can benefit your training and results. We also examine ideal doses and supplement timing...
Capsaicin is found in the Capsicum genus (chili peppers). It is the substance that makes your tongue burn while eating a hot curry. However, capsaicin may actually be helpful for weight and fat loss..
What are Carb Blockers? Carb Blockers are commonly presented & sold as Formulated Supplementary Sports Foods in Australia. Carbohydrates are quite possibly one of the most publicised "evils" when...
Carbohydrates (or carbs) are organic molecules that are eventually broken down into single sugar units, which can be used as a primary source of energy for the synthesis of more complex molecules...
Carnitine is one of the oldest and best studied supplements on the market. It is a natural substance which is synthesised in the liver and kidneys from amino acids lysine and methionine, and is...
Carnosine is important for athletes such as bodybuilders wanting to increase the training intensity, as it elevates the training threshold in prolonged periods of anaerobic work.
Although Casein Hydrolysate and Micellar Casein are different forms of the same protein, these two types of casein have some very different properties that distinguish them from one another and...
Casein has long been one of the most popular supplements on the market, and is definitely one of the safest. In 1997, researcher Yves Boirie and his team declared Casein to be "the only...
Milk can be broken up into two major protein groups. Casein makes up the vast majority of the protein content of milk (80%). The remaining 20% contains a group of proteins collectively known as...
Casein is a high quality dairy protein with an excellent amino acid profile. It is rich in essential amino acids, including BCAAs, and contains other ingredients, like calcium, that stimulate...
Learn more about the different types of casein from casein concentrates to isolates to micellar casein and hydrolysed casein. Take a look at some of best casein powders and custards around and...
Casein and whey are two of the most popular proteins on the market today. They are natural, high quality sources of protein derived from milk, and each have unique properties and benefits that...
What Is Cayenne Pepper? Cayenne Pepper, also known as Red Pepper, Guinea Spice, Cowhorn or Bird Pepper, is a spice which is used in cooking. It contains high levels of capsaicin, the compound...
Chewable multivitamins are similar in constituency to regular multivitamins that come in tablet or capsule form, but are made to resemble gummy candies in taste and appearance. More commonly made in c
Chia, or Salvia hispanica, is a nutrient-dense seed which has experienced a recent surge in popularity and is being hailed as a superfood. It is thought to be the richest plant source of omega-3...
What is Chitosan?  Chitosan is a naturally derived long chain, linear polysaccharide made up of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine molecules. It has a number of uses in fields as diverse as...
Chlorella contains abundant protein and chlorophyll compared with other plants, and also large quantities of minerals, such as iron and magnesium, and vitamins, such as folate, vitamin B-6 and vitamin
Chlorophyll - What is it? Chlorophyll is the pigment in plants and algae that gives them their green colour. It is also the main molecule behind photosynthesis, which is the chemical reaction used...
What is Choline? Choline is considered an essential nutrient for everyday health and must be consumed in the diet or as a supplement. It is usually grouped with the B vitamins and has several...
Chromium is one of the essential minerals, and is needed for carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It is thought that supplementation with chromium may be able to improve lean gains as well as aid in fat..
Cinnamon is used as a spice in culinary dishes from many countries; it consists of the inner bark from trees in the Cinnamomum genus. In order to collect it the bark is peeled from the tree, and...
Cissus quadrangularis or Devil's Backbone is a plant belonging to the grape family. It has been used in traditional Indian medicine for centuries as an analgesic (pain reliever) and treatment for...
Oral citrulline has been shown to be more effective than oral arginine at raising blood levels of arginine. So what is citrulline; what foods is it in; and how is it linked with arginine in the body?
A new study has provided welcomed proof of citrulline malate’s efficacy in improving muscle strength during weight training. Researchers from Mississippi State University and Auburn University...
A whoping 8g dose of citrulline malate is the exact amount it took to increase the rep output in both upper and lower-body exercises over 5 sets of various exercises in two recent studies. In...
Citrus Aurantium - Is it really an alternative to ephedra? Used commonly for fat loss and cutting up Citrus Aurantium is found in most thermogenic fat burners and is an important ingredient to aid...
Cnidium monnieri, also known as Monnier's Snow Parsley, is a flowering plant whose fruits are traditionally used in Chinese medicine. However the seeds also contain the active compounds and are...
What is Coconut Oil? Coconut oil as its name suggests comes from coconut palms or Cocos nucifera. It is often referred to as copra oil, because copra is the name given to the dried meat, or...
Coenzyme Q10 is a lipid soluble vitamin-like substance, found in the mitochondria of cells, and is involved in the production of ATP during aerobic respiration. Much like a real vitamin, it is now...
Colostrum is very rich in nutrients such as protein, vitamins, as well as antibodies. It serves as a good food source for bodybuilders and because it has potential as an ergogenic aid...
Colostrum is the first milk produced by a mammal after birth to nourish, promote growth and immune fuction in...
A new study has given every indication that the myriad of pre workout supplements stacked with beta-alanine and creatine are likely to increase weight training capacity in the gym. While the study...
Learn more about conjugated linoleic acids and how it can help you lose weight and gain muscle at the same time!
Cordyceps sinensis is a species of fungus that has been used as a traditional herbal aphrodisiac and treatment for fatigue. Today, it is extremely valuable and has applications in bodybuilding and...
Cranberries are a sweet and sour edible berry which has, over recent years, received a lot of attention because it has been classified as a "super food". Cranberries are rich in nutrients and antiox..
Creatine is often considered by the training and sports science community as one of the most powerful and effective supplements there are. In fact, creatine can be said to be truly the ‘best...
Creatine - The Basics If you’ve been working out for a while or have been in the sporting industry for a long time, you would’ve most likely heard of creatine. Many of you would have probably also...
We all know creatine for its ability to boost muscle creatine and phosphocreatine stores, which are the body’s preferred fuel source for very high intensity exercise. But it might come as a...
Many people are familiar with creatine, and its well established ability to increase strength and lean gains. But is creatine ethyl ester an improvement on the proven effects of creatine monohydrate?
Learn more about the Creatine Gluconate, a novel form of creatine which is bonded to a compound known as gluconic acid, which is derived from sugar. Fairly new to the market, it can already be found..
Creatine is generally considered to be one of the oldest, best studied, and most effective bodybuilding supplements on the market. However, when it comes to sports supplements, there is a lot of...
Creatine has been clinically proven time and again to be effective in building strength and muscle. Consequently, it is one of the must have supplements for bodybuilders, weight lifters, and other...
Creatine Use Since the early 20th century, creatine has been known to play a role within the muscles and since then, many aspects of creatine, its metabolism, and interactions have been...
Creatine monohydrate is possibly the most popular and researched backed ergogenic aid available. For this reason, there have been many attempts to develop new forms of creatine that offer greater effe
Creatine Monohydrate Facts Creatine Monohydrate is the most popular form of Creatine on the market. It is one of the most popular and best researched sports supplements on the market. Creatine...
Creatine is a natural substance produced by our own bodies, which is also present in most people's diet. Becoming popular in the early 90s, Creatine monohydrate is probably the most widely used...
Creatine is one of the best researched sports supplements. For this reason, there is a lot of data on not only its efficacy as an ergogenic and cognitive enhancer, but also into its safety and side...
Learn more about creatine nitrate and creatine monohydrate, two popular forms of creatine. What are the benefits and negatives of each type of creatine and which should you choose as your next...
Creatine is made from amino acids, and it is produced in the body by the liver and kidneys. It is also present in foods of animal origin, particularly meat, and the diet is a significant creatine...
Creatine Phosphate or phosphocreatine serves as a reservoir of quick energy in our muscle cells. It is produced naturally by the liver, but many athletes choose to further increase creatine levels...
What Is Creatine Pyruvate? Creatine pyruvate is a novel form of creatine that is designed to enhance creatine’s absorption over the traditional form of creatine, namely, creatine monohydrate....
Since coming into common usage in the early 1990s, creatine has developed a reputation as one of the best studied and most effective ergogenic supplements on the market. A natural substance that...
It is universally accepted that Creatine, one of the most popular sports supplements around, is effective in building lean muscle, however there is a lot of debate over how to take it. Do you take...
A study conducted by the Australian Institute of Sport has provided preliminary evidence that aggressive supplementation with curcumin (i.e. 5g/day) may help reduce delayed onset muscle soreness...
Cyclic dextrins (or cyclodextrins) are a specific group type of carbohydrate that are essentially six to eight molecules of glucose (dextrose) chemically bonded together in the shape of a ring. Chemic
What is Cyclopentamine? Cyclopentamine is a compound which was originally used as an over the counter nasal decongestant but also has a range of stimulant properties – similar to that of other...
Cynara scolymus is a common ingredient in liver support formulas that has a rich history of historical use for a wide variety of ailments, but is also enjoys modern supporting scientific evidence for
D-amino acids especially D-Aspartic acid (DAA) have been identified to have important biological roles in the neurological and endocrine systems.
D-Aspartic acid (DAA) is an amino acid which is produced naturally by the body. It is an alternate form of L-Aspartic Acid, which is one of the 22 amino acids used by the body for protein...
DIM or diindolylmethane is a compound which is formed as a result of digestion of a substance called indole-3-carbonol, which is found in cruciferous vegetables. DIM is responsible for many of the...
DMAA (1,3 dimethylamylamine) is an organic compound, effective stimulant and popular ingredient in supplements that can help you make better lean gains and even burn some fat...
What is DMAE? DMAE or dimethylaminoethanol is an organic compound that has been around for a couple of decades for both industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. Better known as Deanol in European...
DMBA HCL also known as 1,3-dimethylbutylamine HCL or 2-Amino-4-methylpentane HCL, is the latest stimulant to be popularised by the bodybuilding and fitness supplement industry. Chemically very...
DMHA or dimethylhexylamine is a stimulant compound that also goes by some other names such as 2-aminoisoheptane or octodrine. If you’re just talking about 2-aminoisoheptane, there’s actually two...
Most of us know what dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is. But what you may not know, is that dandelion is an effective diuretic which can be helpful in your journey to look shredded, while also...
Velvet antler refers to the cartilaginous antlers of moose, elk, and deer. It is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, where dried slices are brewed into a tea and drunk, but is becoming more popul...
Generally speaking, Dendrobium refers to a large genus of orchids. However, in the context of bodybuilding and supplements, it refers specifically to one particular species, Dendrobium nobile, or...
Dextrose (AKA glucose) is a simple sugar that is the primary source of energy for the body. It is rapidly digested and is therefore important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase workout potent..
Enzymes are any protein that is able to speed up the rate of a biological reaction within the body. In the world of bodybuilding and sports nutrition, enzymes generally refer to a group of digestive..
Named after its chemical structure, diindolylmethane consists of two indole groups attached to a methane molecule. It is often shortened to the acronym DIM. It is found in cruciferous vegetables...
Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis) is a medicinal herb native to China. It is sometimes known as Female Ginseng, Chinese Angelica or Danggui. The plant has been used in traditional...
Ecdysterone, (or 20-hydroxyecdysone) is an insect hormone which plays a role in controlling ecdysis, another name for the moulting and metamorphosis process in insects and some...
As the name suggests, egg protein is the protein from eggs, namely the egg white (or albumen). Decades ago, before whey protein came into the scene, the preferred protein of choice for bodybuilding...
Egg Protein Side Effects   Eggs are many a bodybuilder's best friend. In the days before protein powder, people looking to bulk up would drink these down raw. For many people, eggs are an...
What is Elderberry? Elderberry refers to the fruit from a genus of flowering plants known as Sambucus. Elderberries and elderflowers are used as food and flavouring agents throughout Europe, where...
Due to legislative change Ephedra is now unavailable. Fortunately advancements in research and development in the sports supplement industry has resulted in the release of new supplements.
It has been said that a Chinese goat herder noticed that after consuming this herb, his goats became more sexually active. Consequently, Horny Goat Weed has been popularised as a potential aphrodisiac
Eria Jarensis and Eria jarensis extract is an interesting ingredient that is tipped by many in the supplement industry as being the new replacement to DMAA and also many of the stronger stimulants...
Essential amino acids are those necessary for good health that can’t be synthesised by the body, so need to be ingested as part of the diet. Eight amino acids are...
Evening primrose oil is a plant oil extract that is rich in linoleic acid omega 6 oils, as well as some gamma linolenic acid (GLA). It provides essential fatty acids that are needed for good health...
What is Evodiamine? Evodiamine is a chemical compound extracted from a particular species of tree and is said to possess antiobesity effects along with anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious...
Beta-alanine has been studied so heavily in recent years that it’s almost impossible to question its ergogenic potential. But as is the nature of science, once a theory is proven on both a...
It’s arguably the most popular and prevalent ergogenic in pre workouts and fat burner supplements. Even so, there’s a lot that science still has to piece together when it comes to how best to use...
Imagine a nutrient that could protect against some of the most prevalent diseases in the world today. No doubt that if such an ingredient existed, everyone would be trying to get their hands on it...
Fenugreek is a common component in natural testosterone boosters. However. to date there has only been one study in humans where it was taken as part of a 4-day/wk weight training regime and...
Long used in the Indian Ayurvedic medical tradition, fenugreek has been employed in the treatment of a very wide variety of conditions affecting almost every system of the body on top of its...
Fermentation is a metabolic process through which bacteria and yeast convert sugars and starches in food and drink items into acids and alcohols. It is a process that helps to produce a lot of...
Fish oil has received a lot of positive attention in the last few years. With an increasing number of people knowing the difference between good and bad fats, more people are appreciating the many...
Fish oil is extracted from oily fish like Salmon, Mackerel and Cod, and as is the case with many supplements which are derived directly from edible sources, it is widely known as a very safe and...
Fish oil has long been praised for its many benefits. These most notably include improving cardiovascular health by lowering triglycerides and blood pressure, and easing the pain and inflammation...
Fish oil is one of the most popular health supplements out there. With an enormous number of benefits, and backed by decades of research attesting to its effectiveness, this is no surprise. Fish...
Fish Protein Powder - Cow’s milk protein has by far been the most predominant supplemental protein for the last…..well, since forever really. Separated into the two protein fractions, casein and...
Flaxseed oil (also known as linseed oil) is a tasty oil that is known for its high concentration of omega 3 fatty acids. In fact, no other plant contains as high levels as flaxseed oil. For this...
Folic Acid is the name of the B9 vitamin. It is used in the body to help create red blood cells and prevent anemia, as well as in the production and maintenance of DNA in cells...
Amino Acid rich food is important for building muscle and maintaining normal metabolic function in the body. Protein is made of amino acids, so the best place to find aminos is in protein rich...
Learn more about forskolin, an interesting ingredient which may have a wide range of health applications including weight loss.
What is Fucoxanthin? Fucoxanthin is a xanthopyll, a yellow pigment compound. Similarly to chlorophyll it assists with the absorption and regulation of light to be used as energy in plants, but is...
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter and plays a role in the regulation of muscle tone. It may help to increase levels of hGH in order to improve lean gains, fat loss, and even aid...
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 unsaturated essential fatty acid. made in the human body from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid found in vegetable oils and egg yolks.
GPLC - What Is It? GPLC or glycine propionyl L-carnitine is a propionyl ester of carnitine which contains an additional glycine component. Propionyl L-carnitine or PLC is a natural endogenous...
Gamma Oryzanol is actually a group of several different compounds based on a ferulic acid backbone. It is a component of rice bran oil. It is extracted from the germ of rice, and use for cooking...
Garcinia cambogia is a tropical species of the family Garcinia, a group of evergreen plants and shrubs. It produces a yellow fruit that is similar in shape to a pumpkin,...
Garlic is actually the bulb of a plant closely related to onions. It has been widely used in cooking and herbal medicine for many thousands of years, and its many beneficial properties are still known
Ginger is commonly referred to as the ‘rhizome’ of the plant ginger, which carries the botanical name, Zingiber officinale. Ginger root has been cultivated for thousands of years as a spice and a
Having a bit of ginger in your diet has always been a good bet. It's been used in Chinese, Indian and Arabic medicine since ancient times and it's widely used today for its ability to calm the...
What is Ginkgo Biloba? Gingko biloba has existed for over 250 million years and may grow to 40m, and live for over 1,000 years1. The extracts of the gingko biloba leaves have been used for...
Ginseng has been used for centuries as herbal health tonics in many parts of the world. Over the last few decades, ginseng has made its way into western culture for its potential health benefits
Glucosamine is one of the best known supplements in the world. Glucosamine plays a role in building cartilage, which is the substance between joints that provides cushioning. Glucosamine can be used..
Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring solid white compound that has applications for bodybuilding and exercise. There is evidence to suggest that it may be useful in increasing both physical and..
The popular amino acid L-Glutamine is found in protein powders, beans, meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and of course, L-Glutamine supplements. Glutamine is one of the twenty nonessential amino..
Amino Acids For Muscle Growth. Any bodybuilder, athlete or anyone who works out regularly should know that in order to get muscles to grow, we need an abundant supply of protein or amino acids,...
Glutamine is essential in protein metabolism, where it plays a number of roles, including the transport and donation of nitrogen-containing molecules, which are essential for building of new...
Glycocyamine is one of the immediate precursors to creatine, thus explaining its popularity in bodybuilding supplements.
Goji berry is the popular name given to the small red fruit Lycium barbarum, from the family Solanaceae. Goji berries are a well-known traditional Chinese medicine1 and are widely consumed in China an
Golden Root, also known as Rhodiola rosea, Roseroot, or Aaron's Rod is a flowering plant known for its potential as a mood elevating herb. It has been used for centuries by the Russians and...
Also known as Asiatic or Indian Pennywort, Gotu Kola is a perennial plant that can be used in herbal medicine or for culinary uses. Its scientific name is Centella asiatica. It is generally used to...
Recently an increasing number of whey proteins have been popping up showcasing the fact they only contain whey protein from ‘grass fed cows’. Such products carry the general assertion that their...
Green coffee extract is simply raw or unroasted coffee beans that have been crushed and the active ingredients extracted. Raw coffee beans, as the name suggests, are green seeds that have been removed
Over the recent years, green tea has possibly been one of the most well studied herbal remedies. It has been linked to a variety of health promoting effects such as thermogenesis and protection from..
Greens or phytonutrients are a group of plant derived supplements aimed at providing individuals with a huge array of nutrients. With the busy lifestyles of the modern populous, it is no surprise...
Guanidinopropionic acid is a creatine analogue. Guanidinopropionic acid is used with diabetic patients to help improve glucose levels. It does this by increasing the sensitivity of insulin.
Guarana is well known for its high concentration of caffeine. This together with other compounds present may make guarana an effective tool for bodybuilders and dieters. It has potential as a...
Guggulsterones have been identified as the active agents in the resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a variety of ailments...
Gymnema sylvestre is plant has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes in India for centuries.
Gynostemma pentaphyllum also known as jiaogulan is a vine belonging to the cucumber family. It is used as a herbal medicine which may have antioxidant effects, increase exercise performance, provide..
Human Growth Hormone, or somatotropin, is produced by the body's pituitary gland, and it is the main hormone driving growth and development in children and adolescents. As can be expected, levels...
Its chemical name is alpha-hydroxyisocaproic acid, commonly known by the abbreviation HICA. It is also known as Leucic acid. HICA is a metaboliteof the branch chain amino acid Leucine, meaning it is p
HMB is very well studied and there have been numerous scientific publications that show it has anabolic, lipolytic, and recovery boosting effects. In fact, the evidence supporting HMB is so strong...
HMB free acid is marketed under the trademark name BetaTOR by Metabolic Technologies Inc. HMB or beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate is a leucine metabolite and can be available as either a calcium sa...
Hawthorn berry, sometimes known as Thornapple, May-tree, White Horn, Hawberry or just Haw, is the fruit of a tree from the genus Crataegus. The small red fruit is not a...
Hemp protein is a by product from the processing of hemp seeds. The hemp plant is also known as as cannabis or marijuana, but the strains used for production of seeds, fibre...
What is Hemp Seed Oil and what are some of its benefits and side effects? We examine where hemp seed oil comes from, what it's commonly used for and the common dosage and timing of supplementation...
What is Higenamine? Higenamine, also known as norcolaurine, belongs to a class of substances called beta-2 adrinergic receptor agonists, which mimic the activity of neurotransmitters in the body....
Most athletes (especially endurance), acknowledge that increasing training intensity is a key factor in improving performance. But the risk with any increase in training intensity is that one...
Hoodia gordonii is a small succulent plant. It has no leaves but some spines, and is pollinated by flies. It attracts these with the rotting meat smell its flowers produce...
What is Horsetail? Horsetail the common name given to the ancient plants of the species Equisetum. Common Horsetail, Equisetum arvese, has been used for a very long time in traditional and folk...
It’s the question that almost everyone wants an answer to. Whether you pound the pavement or pump iron, burning some extra fat during your workout is a desirably aim for almost anyone. With the...
With all the solid science behind creatine, it is no wonder it is often one of the top supplements for improving exercise performance and increasing lean gains. However, one of the problems of...
What Is Humanofort? Humanofort™ is a patented Romanian supplement said to be beneficial for a whole host of medical and clinical issues including raising testosterone levels to reducing cortisol...
Huperzine A is a naturally occurring alkaloid that has been used as a herbal medicine in China for centuries for treating a variety of disorders. However, more recently, evidence has emerged to show..
Unlike whey, the protein quality of hydrolysed collagen is incomplete, but it does have a unique amino acid profile which gives it benefits of its own..
Hydrolysed Protein - Protein is by all standards one of the most, if not THE most important nutrient related to bodybuilding and muscular adaptations. The body will conserve...
A series of recent studies by Japanese researchers suggests that the high content of branched-chain amino acid-containing dipeptides in whey hydrolysate is key to its superior anabolic properties
What is Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA)? Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), as its name suggests, is a natural derivative of citric acid. It can be found in the rind of fruits such as Malabar Tamarinds and some...
Being sick is probably one of the things people hate most. Whether it’s a nasty cold or a full blown flu, most would give anything to keep themselves from getting sick. With the absence of infection b
Testosterone is what makes a man a man. As well as being an androgen, which means it produces male features, it is also anabolic, which means it causes growth. For this reason it is one of the...
Inosine is a nucleic acid or nucleoside derivative, which is a purine base, comparable to well-known DNA bases, adenine and guanine.
Inositol is a sugar-like carbohydrate, that has long been known for its fat metabolism properties, and more recently, it has also been known to improve insulin sensitivity and provide other benefic...
Intra workouts are one of the newest categories of supplements on the market, and have become very popular in a short amount of time, particularly amongst elite...
Iron is an essential trace mineral. There are many benefits of iron for the bodybuilder and athlete. Iron is needed for optimum performance, immune function, mental function, and thermoregulaion...
There is no doubt that the sport of bodybuilding owes a huge debt of gratitude to the humble chicken. Raw eggs were the original protein supplement, and egg protein, as a versatile alternative to...
There's been a bit of interest with the safety of green tea extract lately. So what is green tea extract exactly and is it actually dangerous? We take a look at the evidence and debunk any...
What is L-Isoleucine? L-Isoleucine is one of the essential amino acids that cannot be made by the body and is known for its ability to help endurance and assist in the repair and rebuilding of...
Isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) is the overriding name given to a mixtures of oligosaccharides such as isomaltulose, panose, isomaltotriose and isomaltotetraose. Commercial IMO powders typically differ
Isomaltulose or Palatinose is a pure, white, crystalline carbohydrate derived from the natural source of sucrose. It can be found in e.g. honey and sugar cane extract. Isomaltulose...
Thanks to support from BPI, four-time Mr Olympia Jay Cutler now has his own range of supplements. Heading up the Jay Cutler Elite Series line-up his is very own blended protein powder, Total...
What is Jojoba? Jojoba is a shrub plant that is native in Southern United States, especially in the deserts of California, Arizona and Mexico. Also known as the goat nut or the pig nut bush,...
What is Kava Kava? Kava Kava or simply Kava is a plant native to Western Pacific regions of Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia including places such as Tonga, Vanuatu, Hawaii, Samoa and French...
Kefir is a fermented milk drink with the consistency of thin yoghurt. It is prepared using kefir grains, small gelatinous crystals made up of various species of lactobacilli and yeast enclosed in a...
Even for the average fitness enthusiast, the term ketone or ketone body may not mean much. There are some who associate it with the highly popularised “ketogenic diet” (also called Atkins...
Kola nuts are bitter fruits of kola trees, which belong to the Cola genus. The nut contains caffeine, and it's no coincidence that the world's best known caffeinated beverage is also named "Coca Cola"
What is Kombucha? Kombucha is a fermented black tea beverage which is touted for its supposed health effects. Due to the fermentation process, it is slightly effervescent and has a sour taste. The...
Krill are small prawn-like marine crustacean that belong to the Euphausia genus. A certain species, Antarctic krill, is used to make krill oil, which has recently proven to be superior in nutrient...
Fish oil is one of the most popular nutritional supplements used today, and has a lot of well studied benefits which are recognised by health professionals. Krill oil has only come onto the market...
What is L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine? (also known as Glutamine Dipeptide) L-alanyl-L-glutamine as the name suggests is a dipeptide made up of the amino acids, alanine and glutamine. L-alanyl-l-glutamine...
Carnitine Carnitine is arguably one of the most well-known supplements in the bodybuilding industry. It’s been around for decades…literally! Most gym enthusiasts have tried it at one time or...
L-Carnitine is arguably one of the oldest and most popular single-ingredient supplements in the sport of bodybuilding, having been around for some 3 decades. In contrast, its acetylated form,...
L-Dopa is the precursor to several neurotransmitters including dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). It is found within the human body as well as in other animals...
What is L-Theanine? Theanine, L-Theanine or gamma-glutamylethylamide is a non-protein amino acid which is similar in structure to glutamine; the most abundant amino acid in our bodies. Originally...
These days, as people become aware of the health risks of eating too much processed food and back to basics diets like paleo enjoy ever increasing popularity, more and more health conscious people...
Natural and Organic proteins hit the shelves years ago, where they catered to a niche market. Over the past few years, this section of the market has exploded, with supplement giants like Optimum...
In much welcomed news, a study has finally surfaced on the hot new form of creatine that's been appearing in a lot of the new pre workouts; namely, creatine nitrate. Funded by none other than...
Muscle soreness sucks. There’s no sugar coating it. That dreadful feeling when you wake up the next day and you have trouble completing the simplest of daily tasks such as showering, walking down...
Green tea has been popular in parts of Asia for hundreds of years, both as a drink, and as a traditional remedy. Over the past few decades, Western science has taken a strong interest in...
Safe, natural, and effective, green tea extract is one of those ingredients that pops up in a lot of supplements, most notably fat metabolisers. The major active chemicals in green tea are known as...
Some people say that losing weight is a simple matter of putting less fuel into your body than you're burning for energy. Sure, that's technically an accurate way to put it, but it's also an...
A recent study in rats comparing the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) has produced a novel, somewhat unexpected finding. While a number of subtle...
Whey is well known as the gold standard in proteins, but what a lot of people don't know is that soy isolate is hot on its heels. The fact that this plant-based protein is nearly...
Most competitive athletes nowadays are engaged in some type of periodised training program. Such programs typically include occasional periods of high intensity training. While such periods are
Obesity is often called an epidemic and it has been recognised as one of the major public health issues in the western world. Obesity is associated with a number of pathogenic states, including...
Two decades ago, we used to laud carbs, demonise fat, and nobody except for serious athletes and bodybuilders really gave a second thought to protein. How times have changed. Protein is, of course,...
Fucoxanthin is a Xanthophyll pigment found in marine algae and brown seaweed. It's a strong antioxidant, and has been gaining a lot of attention in the last few years because it has shown promise...
One of the most noticeable trends over the past few years is the increasing popularity of functional nutrition. As superfoods slowly edge their way into the mainstream, people are dosing up on...
Many people were left quite alarmed this week by some very confronting study results which made the claim that users of muscle building supplements ran a significantly increased risk of developing...
Lecithin is a fatty substance that can be found in both plants and animals. It is a very useful material commonly used in food processing, and it even has benefits for general health...
What is l-Leucine? L-Leucine is one of the essential Amino Acids and one of three Branched Chained Amino Acids, along with Isoleucine & Valine. There are eight Essential Amino Acids in total, with...
Leucine peptides is the general term used to define certain leucine-containing di- and tripeptides. Leucine peptides are appearing at an increasing rate in various sports supplements from pre...
What is Licorice Root? Whilst licorice is best known to most of us as a controversial candy flavour, licorice root (scientific name Glycyrrhiza glabra), has been used medicinally throughout the...
What is Litramine? Litramine is a weight loss aid that attracts and binds tightly to fat within the GI tract, preventing it from being absorbed, instead sweeping it out of the body as waste. A...
Long Jack is a very bitter tasting small tree with medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used as an aphrodisiac, but may also have applications to bodybuilding by boosting testosterone...
Long Jack (also known as Eurycoma longifolia, Longifolia, Jack, Tongkat Ali and Malaysian Ginseng) has traditionally been used throughout South East Asia as an aphrodisiac, an antimicrobial, a cure...
Over recent years, lycopene has gained attention of nutritionists and other scientists because of its powerful effects as an antioxidant and potential to show benefits against heart disease, cancer...
Lysine is an essential amino acid that is needed for health and life. Besides this, lysine is a major player in HGH supplements, and may have a role in helping to increase the natural level of grow...
MCTs have completely different chemical and biological properties compared to other fats and oils. They have been well studied for their ability to aid in weight and fat loss, as well as also provid..
Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are a unique type of fatty acid, by virtue of their structure. The designation ‘medium’ refers to the length of the fatty acids, which is measured by the number of...
MSM is a sulphur containing compound, and it can be used for the treatment of osteoarthritis and the maintenance of joints health. If you're joints are well worn from a life time of strenuous physic..
Maca is a plant from the Peruvian mountains that has been used for approximately 2000 years. Natives endorse the consumption of this herb to increase stamina, strength, fertility, and sex drive...
Magnesium is often called "The Muscle Mineral". Aside from being involved in hundreds of enzymatic reactions and playing an essential role in the production of energy within the cells, studies have...
Can taking magnesium improve your strength and/or help with muscle gain? A few studies have explored this issue, with some encouraging findings...
What is Manganese? Manganese is an essential mineral that is commonly used in steel and iron production but was also originally used in batteries. It is also crucial to human health due to its...
What is Mangosteen?   Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is native to South East Asia, and is known as "The Queen of the tropical fruits". The fruit is dark purple in colour. The inedible purple...
What is Matcha? Matcha is a high quality, finely ground green tea, notable for its characteristic bright green colour. It is consumed as a beverage and also used as a natural colouring and...
Australian protein specialists Max’s have recently been on a roll with their new range of protein snacks. Max’s SuperShred Bars are the latest to join the Max’s ranks and are a replacement for the...
Melatonin is a hormone found in humans and most animals, and is responsible for maintaining the circadian rhythm and sleep patterns. It is produced in low levels of light in the pineal gland...
Micellar casein is an insoluble form of casein that is revered for its slow release properties. The term "micellar" refers to the fact that these proteins naturally aggregate into "micelles" when in..
As its name suggests, micellar whey combines the benefits of both whey and micellar casein. More specifically, micellar whey is said to consist of whey protein particles...
Milk thistle (or St Mary’s thistle) is arguably one of the most intensively researched and promising herbal treatments considered for duty in front line medicine. Traditionally, milk thistle has...
Mucuna Pruriens is a tropical legume, or bean producing plant. It is known by many other names, often relating to the intense itching the tiny hairs on the plant produce...
There are many people that are looking for more natural supplements and health products, that have been provided by mother nature rather than someone in a lab. Whatever type of help with your muscle..
What is N-methyltyramine (NMT)? N-methyltyramine (NMT), otherwise known as 4-hydroxy-N-methylphenethylamine, is a stimulant that has become popular in pre-workouts and fat loss supplements. This...
What is Niacin? Niacin or vitamin B3 is an essential vitamin and nutrient which has long been used to help improve cholesterol and lipid profiles. Vitamin B3 can refer to both niacin as well as...
Success in competitive sports is not all about physical ability. The speed and accuracy of decision-making plays a crucial part; particularly in team sports. Working on the basic assumption that...
Nitrate supplements are an exciting emerging line of sports nutrition supplements based on new discoveries about nitrates ability to act as precursors of nitric oxide. Such discoveries have helped exp
Nitrosigine is a patented form of arginine which is bound to silicate. It was developed specifically for the bodybuilding and sports nutrition market, to assist with boosting nitric oxide, pump, and..
What is Noni? Noni is the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, a tree native to Australasia, South East Asia and the Carribean. The fruit is large and white, and also known as Great Morinda, Indian or...
Nootropics are a relatively new term designated to a whole range of drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods that are said to support and improve mental and cognitive function and...
Nootropics are a relatively new phenomenon in the supplement industry, even though many of the ingredients that have nootropic properties have been known for centuries. While protein powders and...
Norvaline is a water soluble amino acid which is an isomer of a the branched chain amino acid (BCAA), Valine. Isomers are simply molecules with the same chemical composition but different structure...
Cycling is one of the most popular recreational and competitive sports nowadays, with the cycling industry and government reports suggesting record sales and participation levels respectively ....
All of us have experienced post-workout soreness. This is caused by both mechanical and metabolic damage to the muscles, and it can reduce exercise capacity and sap motivation, causing missed gym...
What is Octopamine? Octopamine or β,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine is a compound that was originally extracted from the salivary glands of octopus. It is similar in function to noradrenaline, which is...
The term “olive leaves” refers to a mixture of leaves and branches from both the pruning of olive trees and the harvesting and cleaning of olives. The production of olive leaves from pruning is ~25 k
Nowadays omega-3 fatty acids are touted as remedies for a range of disorders from eye conditions  and sore joints to heart disease and diabetes. But one application where they have received...
What are Omega-6 & Omega-9? Omega-6 and Omega-9 are families of unsaturated fatty acids that have final double bonds six, and nine carbon atoms away from the methyl end of the fatty acid molecule...
Optimum Nutrition 100% Whey Gold Standard is one of the top selling proteins, if not the best seller, on the market. While other proteins come and go, Gold Standard has managed to hold onto this...
Optimum Nutrition 100% Whey Gold Standard is the leading protein on the market today, as it has been for many years. With a great reputation, high quality ingredients, and a clever, up to date...
Ornithine is an amino acid, but not one that is used to create proteins. It plays a role in the urea cycle, in conjunction with citrulline and arginine, two other amino acids. It is produced within..
Ornithine α-ketoglutarate (OKG) is a salt formed of two molecules of ornithine and one molecule of α-Ketoglutarate. OKG is unique in that its positive effects cannot be replicated when giving only...
The world of protein supplements is growing day by day. With more brands, greater demand and innovation comes more variety in the industry. No longer are you confined to either milk based proteins...
A few years ago, the notion of taking oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) to improve performance was often ridiculed for its simplicity and naivety. While everyone recognises that ATP is the...
What Are Persimmons? Persimmons are an edible, orange/yellow coloured fruit originally believed to have originated from China before being introduced to close by countries Japan and Korea....
The Latest Supplement Research   White Beans – Effective Weight Loss Product A new weight loss product has shown potential in a recent study. White beans, or Phaseolus vulgaris, may increase the...
Phenibut is a derivative of GABA and is able to cross the blood brain barrier. It has been reported that phenibut is able to improve mental performance as well as reduce anxiety and improve sleep...
Phenylalanine serves as the precursor to tyrosine, which in turn serves as the precursor to the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine), melanin and thyroid hormones.
Phenylethylamine or PEA is a naturally occurring alkaloids that has functions as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. It has potential benefits as a stimulant, and as a way to elevate mood and to p..
In chemical gobbledygook, phosphatidic acid (PA) is a classified as a diacyl-glycerophospholipid, in which two fatty acids and a phosphate group are covalently bonded...
Phosphatidylserine is a lipid derived from amino acids. It is similar in structure to triglycerides, the form in which fat is stored in the body, but with two...
Picamilon, also commonly spelled as Pikamilon or nicotinoyl-GABA is a common dietary supplement that is made by combining niacin (vitamin B3) with GABA or gamma aminobutyric acid. Developed in the...
As the name suggests, plant protein is the protein from plants. Just like protein from other sources, it can be used to promote lean gains, fat loss, and muscle recovery...
Polydextrose is a tasteless synthetic form of soluble dietary fibre that is synthesised by combining glucose (AKA dextrose) molecules together. It has applications for weight and fat loss, as well...
The pomegranate is an edible fruit about the size of a grapefruit or slightly smaller. It has very thick, reddish coloured skin and is filled with seeds, each contained within a capsule of fluid...
Potassium is an essential macro mineral that is needed for proper functioning of the body. It is an electrolyte and is responsible for a range of processes such as pH balance, nerve and muscle control
Muscle building, fitness, strength, power, endurance, getting huge are great goals that people work very hard toward attaining, putting in lots of time, effort, and sheer pain in the gym. For some...
Craze was a pre-workout supplement manufactured by Driven Sports, a company notorious in the sports nutrition industry. In a previous incarnation, Driven traded under the name "Designer...
Both prebiotics and probiotics help to increase the numbers and health of the good bacteria that live in your gut. This results in a few potential health effects, the best well known of such is...
Without protein your body cannot synthesise or repair muscle, which is why protein is probably one of the number one nutrients to consider when taking up bodybuilding or intensive exercise. Many...
Whether you love it in steak form or frequently chug it down in shakes after your workouts, protein is one of those ingredients that seems to be popping up everywhere we look. While most of us have...
If you’re reading this article, it’s fair to infer that at one time or another you may have experienced the phenomena of protein farts. Protein farts or to put it more correctly; protein...
Protein only diets have become popular in the last decade or so, and diets like Atkins and Dukan, which place a strong emphasis on protein consumption have remained fixtures on the bestseller list....
Protein is an essential part of the diet, and something that our bodies need for growth and repair. Over the past decade, there has been a large shift in the way we eat, and the...
Protein Requirements   Along with Carbohydrates and Fats, Protein is one of the three primary macronutrients required for the normal day to day functioning of the body. Protein requirements are not...
In recent times, there has been a renewed interest in the role that protein can play in enhancing training adaptations and ultimately performance in endurance athletes. Traditionally, the realm...
What is Protodioscin? Protodioscin is a steroidal saponin found in a variety of plant species including the Tribulus, Trigonella and Dioscorea families. It is used in supplements to increase...
Pterostilbene is a compound that is related to resveratrol, though containing two additional methyl groups. It is thought that pterostilbene has a range of benefits including reducing blood lipids...
Pycnogenol is the name of a patented form of pine bark extract. It contains a mixture of flavonoids, catechins, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, all of which contribute to the clinical effects...
What is Pygeum? Pygeum is an extract derived from the bark of a tree native to certain regions of Africa. Over the past three decades, there has been growing research and interest for the use of...
In scientific gobbledygook PQQ is defined broadly as a enzyme cofactor and more specifically as a growth factor in plants and animals1. This essentially means PQQ is involved in the regulation of the
Pyruvate is an organic acid involved in the energy production pathways in the body. It is produced from glucose, and can then be converted back in carbohydrates or into fatty acids for storage...
Quercetin is a naturally occuring flavonoid that is found exclusively in a diverse range of fruits, vegetables and beverages such as tea and wine. It is particularly high in the skins of grapes...
Quinoa protein is the latest plant based protein which will soon be hitting the shelves as an excellent alternative to other plant based proteins such as soy protein, pea protein and rice...
Raspberry Ketones The smell of raspberries brings back memories of pavlova and cough syrup. While everyone has different opinions of raspberries, there is no doubt that it is fast becoming a...
Most savvy supplement users are aware of the basic dosing protocol for [category:post-workout-supplements alt="" html="0"]creatine supplementation[/category]. Namely, a loading phase (~20g/day)...
Resveratrol is a phenol that naturally occurs in a few plants. It is something of interest to bodybuilders because it may have oestrogen blocking, fat burning, and nitric oxide increasing properties.
Lactose intolerance is one of the most common food intolerances known. Producing distention and gas in the small intestine, lactose intolerance is also one of the most widely accepted types of...
What is Rose Hip? Rose Hip or rose haw is the fruit from the rose plant. The fruit itself has a wide variety of uses, most of which involves consuming the fruit in one form of another. Often used...
SAMe, or S-Adenosyl methionine is a chemical compound used throughout the body as a donor of methyl groups; this means that it allows other important chemical reactions to proceed that without it...
Sage Leaf Tea is made from the leaves of the sage plant, Salvia officinalis. Sage is best known as a popular culinary herb, used predominantly in European cooking, but it...
Salmon protein powder is a relatively new type of protein supplement that will grow in popularity over time. Derived from the oily fish salmon, it is naturally high in omega 3 fatty acids as well...
Saw Palmetto is a small palm tree, containing an extract that has been traditionally used to treat a variety of urinary and reproductive issues. It has been common used by doctors in Italy and...
Also known as Kanna, and by the brand name Zembrin, Sceletium Tortuosum is a herb which has long been used for its psychoactive and analgesic properties. It has recently made its way into a number...
Schisandra, sometimes spelt as “Schizandra” is a genus of flowering plant. More specifically in sports nutrition and bodybuilding, it refers to a specific species, Schisandra chinensis. This plant...
Humans and animals require selenium for the function of a number of selenium-dependent enzymes, also known as selenoproteins. Selenium is known primarily for its antioxidant activity and is role...
Sesamin is a lignin compound derived from sesame seeds. Of sesame oil, about 1-2% is the non-fat fragment, and sesamin is one of the many compounds found in that...
Silk amino acids originate from silk proteins produced from silkworm and have been ingested as part of the diet in Asian countries for a long time. Two proteins called fibroin and sericin are the main
Sodium bicarb is an old school supplement, nothing fancy, that when consumed, is able to increase blood carbonate levels (and hence pH) and buffer against fatigue from exercise induced acid build up..
The notion of using sodium bicarbonate to buffer muscle acidity during times of intense exercise has been around for decades, with the first studies appearing in the early 1980’s. It’s a wonder...
Endurance and stamina are important aspects of exercise and bodybuilding, and can help give you better muscle definition. One of the more forgotten, yet apparently effective performance enhancing...
Whether you're a vegetarian, or an omnivorous bodybuilder, you probably already know that legumes are a great source of protein. Therefore, it should be no surprise that legumes such as soy can be...
Many people have allergies or intolerances, or do not wish to consume dairy based proteins, or proteins of animal origin. For those people, soy protein is an excellent alternative. Health Benefits...
Spirulina is an edible form of fresh water algae. Being high in protein, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids, it is known for its rich array of nutrients and potential ergog...
St John's Wort is a yellow flowering herb. The name comes from its habit of flowering and being harvested on the 24th of June, or St Johns Day. On this day it was...
Stevia is a natural non-caloric sweetener that has been used for centuries by South Americans, and more recently by the Japanese. It is suitable for use by diabetics and by those on low carbohydrate..
What is Strontium? Strontium is a non-essential trace mineral with properties similar to calcium. Like calcium, strontium is able to incorporate into bone. The ratio of calcium to strontium in...
Learn more about Sulbutiamine, a synthetic derivative of Thiamine which may improve memory, muscle weakness and erectile dysfunction
Sore muscles are the bane of any athlete's existence, and the wide variety of methods touted to speed up recovery time is constantly being added to through research and innovation, as well as...
If your anything like the average endurance athlete, you’re probably not rolling in cash, and therefore need to be selective about what endurance supplements you buy. Just like the world of protein...
Contrary to the popular sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) that we all like buying around Christmas time and gorging ourselves silly with, the tart cherry is the other...
A new study has provided promising evidence that the humble tart cherry might be an effective supplement for reducing muscle soreness and damage following resistance exercise. Published in the...
Research has indicated that Taurine improves exercise performance by increasing muscle strength, help the body better use glucose, and protects the body form exercise induced muscle damage.
In bodybuilding, taurine is often singled out for its antioxidant, cell-volumising and muscle contractile regulation properties. But taurine is a versatile amino acid with many other beneficial effect
Testosterone is one of the holy grails of bodybuilding. It is the hormone that sculpts that sought after, strong, cut, physique - it makes it easier to gain muscle and banish fat, and on top of...
The demand for protein is growing around the world fuelled by growing economies and a growing passion and focus on health. In fact, increased consumption of higher protein food sources such as meat...
Theacrine or 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid is a purine alkaloid compound which is fast becoming the new kid on the block in terms of stimulants. Extremely similar to caffeine, Theacrine began...
Theobromine is a naturally occurring alkaloid that is a close chemical relative of caffeine. In the world of bodybuilding, it could help to improve workout intensity as well as being a natural diur...
Endurance supplements are an ever growing category of sports supplements that are also seeing an increase in diversity. Reports that 'cycling is the new golf' suggest increasing number of individuals
What are some of the biggest food and ingredient trends in the health and supplements industry? We take a look at emerging new health foods and what you can expect to see in some of your meals and...
Also known as Rhus vernicifluum or the Chinese Lacquer Tree, Toxicodendron vernicifluum is one of the latest botanical extracts to pop up in sporting supplements, drawing questions from many people...
What is Tri-Creatine Malate? Creatine is one of the most popular and effective sports supplements on the market, and it has been proven time and time again to improve strength, endurance and...
A soon-to-be-published study in the Journal of Sports and Health Science has provided welcomed new evidence concerning the ergogenic properties of Tribulus terrestris. As the herb most well known...
Tribulus Terrestris is a plant natve to many parts of the world, including Eastern Europe, India and China. Known by a number of names, including Puncture Vine, Devil's Thorn, Gokshura, Yingjili,...
The herb Tribulus Terrestris first gained prominence as a ‘secret weapon’ employed by Bulgarian weightlifters. Tribulus Terrestris is supposed to have many metabolic properties including...
What is Turkesterone? Turkesterone is an ecdysteroid which are steroid hormones found commonly in insects but can also be found in certain plant species. These are known as phytoecdysteroids. In...
Curcumin is the principal polyphenol component of turmeric that imparts its characteristic yellow colour. It is thought to be responsible for much of turmeric’s reported anti-oxidant and anti-inflamma
Tyrosine is a conditionally essential amino acid because under normal conditions the body synthesizes sufficient quantities from phenylalanine.
Ubiquitol is a form of co-enzyme Q10. This enzyme is present in most cells, and forms a part of the energy release process that occurs in mitochondria. This involves the transport of electrons in a...
Fish oil is one of the most popular nutritional supplements on the market. It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA and has a number of beneficial effects on the body such as reducing...
What is Ursolic Acid? Ursolic acid (also known as Ursol, Prunol, Malol or Apple Peel Extract) is a substance found in many varieties of plants. It comes from a family of chemicals known as the...
Valerian is a herbal sleeping aid that has been used for decades and has been well documented for its ability to safely treat insomnia. It is said to have a sedative and calming effect...
L-Valine is an amino acid and also a branched-chain amino acid found in high concentration in the muscles.
Vanadyl Sulfate is a stable complex of the elements Vanadium, Sulfur and Oxygen. Vanadium is classified as an ultratrace element and there is controversy over whether it is essential for humans in ...
Originally developed in Melbourne, Australia, Viraloid is a trademarked name, which refers to a combination of tribulus and wild yam. This mixture contains a potent blend of steroidal alkaloids call..
Virgin coconut oil is the name given to oil extracted from fresh (i.e. within 24 hours) coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) by wet processing with minimal heat exposure....
Vitamin A was the first vitamin to be discovered. It is a group of fat soluble compounds that are vital to life. Its best known function is that it's needed for night vision. However, unknown to...
Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine is an essential water soluble vitamin. It is needed for sugar and amino acid metabolism, as well as the synthesis of neurotransmitters...
Vitamin B12 is a water soluble B group vitamin that is essential for health. It has has a range of functions within the body including red blood cell synthesis, neurological function, and DNA synthe..
Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid, is an essential water soluble vitamin that is needed for proper energy metabolism as well as healthy skin...
What Is Vitamin B6? Vitamin B6 is an essential vitamin that must be derived from the diet. Vitamin B6 does not actually refer to a specific chemical entity, but rather it is the collective name...
Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid) is probably one of the most famous of the water soluble vitamins. It serves some vital functions such as being involved in the synthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and...
Learn about Vitamin D and it's effects relating to Bodybuilding, Strength, Weight Training & Muscle Hypertrophy. How does it affect Testosterone Production, Fertility & performance. Traditionally...
Vitamin E is one of the essential fat soluble vitamins. The best known function of vitamin E is that it's a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from free radical damage...
What is Vitamin K? Vitamin K is an essential fat soluble vitamin. It is not a single compound, but a group of chemically related compounds that serve the same purpose. Vitamin K naturally exists...
Researchers from Denmark are among the first to uncover some of the specific mechanisms governing accelerated muscle growth in response to resistance exercise and whey protein supplementation. A...
WPI (or whey protein isolate) is a form of whey protein that has been processed in such a fashion that many of the impurities such as carbs and fats are removed from whey. This results in a higher...
Waxy maize starch is made up of amylopectin, which is a form of carbohydrate that is much more slowly digested compared to ordinary starch. This provides more sustained energy for bodybuilders and...
For most people, 'weight loss' is an inaccurate term. While the goal is to see the needle on the scales creep down, it's a safe bet that fat loss, rather than the loss of lean muscle is what the...
Weight loss smoothies are one of the most popular meal options for individuals looking to lose weight -  largely due to their ease of preparation and good taste. The options are literally endless...
Traditionally speaking, whey is the liquid left over when milk is curdled. It is made up of water, sugars, fats, and protein. When people in the fitness community talk about whey, they're more than...
Wheat germ is a component of the wheat grain. It is considered a by-product in the manufacture of white flour but it is retained in whole grain flour, and it is responsible for some of its...
Wheatgrass is a nutrient packed supplement prepared from the grass or leaves of the common wheat plant (Triticum aestivum) at a relatively young age. At this stage, it contains high levels of...
Creatine is one of the best researched and most effective ergogenic supplements on the market. Creatine is a naturally occurring amino acid which is vital for providing our muscles with quick energy.
Krill Oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid). These fatty acids are considered to be 'essential' because our bodies are unable to produc
Tribulus terrestris is a plant that has been used in Ayurvedic medicine and throughout Eastern Europe, for thousands of years. It was used to enhance libido, strength and stamina, and more generally a
Forskolin is a chemical that is found in the roots of the Coleus plant, a plant that has been used for thousands of years in the Indian Ayurvedic medical tradition. Traditionally, forskolin was used..
Whey is considered the gold standard in protein supplementation because it is well digested, has a high bioavailability, and is high in muscle building Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). WPI...
Weight gainer proteins can be a really useful tool for anyone who is trying to bulk up. Putting on lean muscle requires a calorie excess, meaning that you need to consume more than you are burning...
Whey protein is probably one of the best known supplements used by bodybuilders today. It is a complete protein, meaning it contains all the essential amino acids, and is of very high and rapid...
Whey protein hydrolysates represent the top tier of whey protein supplements. They are generally the most expensive and offer the most benefits for muscle recovery and growth. But just like their...
Whey protein hydrolysate or hydrolysed whey protein is obtained through hydrolysing (or treating with enzymes) whey protein. The process chops up the protein into shorter chains of amino acids known..
Whey Protein Isolate, commonly known as WPI is one of the most popular protein supplements around. What sets it apart from other proteins is its extremely fast absorbing nature and its purity...
As arguably the most popular type of bodybuilding supplement, its invariable that individuals will run into some type of side effects from time to time when using a given whey protein supplement...
Traditionally recognised as the ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ proteins of the sports nutrition world, whey and casein are the two pillar proteins of sport supplements. But which one is better for putting on...
White kidney beans (or cannellini beans) is an effective carb blocker and may help you reduce weight by shedding off excess fat while also helping to maintain lean muscle mass...
What is White Mulberry? White Mulberry, also known as Morus Alba is a native Asian plant that has traditionally been cultivated as a food for silk worms, but is fast becoming a popular health food...
Willow bark extract (or salicin) is natural anti-inflammatory that is chemically similar to aspirin. Over the years it has been used effectively as one of the many ingredients in weight and fat loss..
What is Yacon Syrup? Yacon syrup is a functional food with one of the highest naturally occurring concentrations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS). FOS is a compound that tastes sweet, but cannot be...
Yerba mate is a Spanish name for a green plant known as Ilex paragariensis to botanists and belonging to the holly family. It has applications for bodybuilding and exercise because it has stimulant...
Yohimbine is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid which is used as a fat burner, a general stimulant, and a remedy for erectile dysfunction. It comes from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree...
What is ZMA? ZMA is a supplement stack consisting of Zinc Monomethionine, Magnesium Aspartate, and often Vitamin B6, or Pyroxidine. It is claimed to increase strength and boost testosterone levels,...
ZMA is a blend of vitamins and minerals that is used by many men to increase strength, boost testosterone levels, and assist sleep. It is made up of zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6, all of which are...
Zinc is second only to iron in body content and half of the body's total zinc is present in muscle, making zinc a crucial mineral for immunity, growth and development.