A few years ago, the notion of taking oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) to improve performance was often ridiculed for its simplicity and naivety. While everyone recognises that ATP is the bodies currency of energy, scientists have long known that intracellular concentrations of ATP are much higher than extracellular and what’s more, its ultimately intracellular ATP that supplies energy for muscle contraction. Finally, sports scientists knew that taking ATP orally did not affect intracellular levels1. Armed with this knowledge, it’s only natural that one would question the conventional wisdom of taking oral ATP. But as is often the case with research, scientists where digging holes in the wrong places.
What is Peak ATP®?
Peak ATP® is a patented oral form of ATP that occurs as a disodium salt.
Where Does Peak ATP® Come From?
Peak ATP® is synthesised synthetically. At the time of writing, Peak ATP® is made exclusively by a company called TSI based in Montana, USA.
How Does Peak ATP® Work?
The secret with Peak ATP®’s reported benefits on performance lies in its extracellular (i.e. outside the cell) functions. Scientists have discovered that subtle changes in the extracellular concentration of ATP and its breakdown product adenosine have important signalling roles within the body. This signalling role of ATP is mediated by a class of receptors called purinergic receptors2. Through purinergic receptors, ATP can increase blood flow and oxygenation of tissues3; and act as neurotransmitter to reduce pain perception4.
Peak ATP® Benefits
Boosts Muscle Excitability
Clinical studies with Peak ATP® have shown that it can increase muscular excitability, which refers to the ability to activate and contract muscles. Muscle excitability is mediated by the release of calcium into the cell, and Peak ATP® has been shown increase the amount of calcium in the cell. Greater muscle excitability invariably leads to greater muscle force and velocity production.
Increased Strength & Power
Two studies have shown that supplementation with Peak ATP® over several weeks can help strength athletes lift more weight, increase vertical jump power and improve muscle mass compared with placebo5, 6.
Improved Blood Flow & Reduced Muscular Fatigue & Recovery
In studies with animals and humans, Peak ATP® has been shown to improve muscular endurance and recovery by increasing blood flow during and following exercise7. While increased blood flow is often associated with improved oxygen delivery and exercise performance, it also helps mediate the removal of waste products, which is particularly important during high intensity exercise such as strength training.
Increased Lean Body Mass & Strength
12 weeks of supplementation with Peak ATP® in strength athletes was shown to lead to greater gains in muscle mass when taken as part of a periodised resistance training program. Phase 1 was a periodised resistance-training program. Phase 2 consisted of a two week overreaching cycle in which volume and frequency were increased followed by a 2-week taper (Phase 3). The same study also showed that subjects increased their overall body strength and had a lower amount of protein breakdown6.
Peak ATP® Negative Side Effects
Peak ATP® has a good safety profile. It is not a stimulant, and therefore does not adversely affect heart rate or raise blood pressure. In the multiple human clinical trials and pilot studies conducted on Peak ATP® to date, no adverse reactions have been observed.
Peak ATP® Recommended Dosages & Ingredient Timing
The recommended dose of Peak ATP® is 400 mg daily, to be taken on an empty stomach with water. Timing wise, one serving of Peak ATP® is recommended to be taken 30-60 minutes prior to exercise. On non-training days, individuals can consume one serving approximately 20-30 minutes prior to breakfast.
Peak ATP® Supplements
In Australia, Peak ATP® can be purchase as a standalone supplement in the form of Promera Peak 400. As the name suggests, each 1.6g serve provides 400mg of Peak ATP®; the most clinically validated dose. Peak ATP® also occurs as a minor component in products such as Inner Armour Power Peak and BSN Hyper FX.
Stacking Peak ATP®
Peak ATP® works via a unique mechanism and therefore, should complement most other popular ergogenics such as creatine, beta-alanine, citrulline and caffeine.
1. Arts CW, et al. Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9:16.
2. Burnstock G, et al. Purinergic signalling in the musculoskeletal system. Purinergic Signalling. 2013; 9:541-572.
3. Agteresch HJ, et al. Adenosine triphosphate: established and potential clinical applications. Drugs. 1999;58:211–232.
4. Sawynok J & Sweeney MI. The role of purines in nociception. Neuroscience. 1989;32:557–569.
5. Rathmacher JA, et al. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9:48.
6. Wilson JM, et al. Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2013;10:57.
7. Jäger R, et al. Oral adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2014;11:28