What is Guanidinopropionic Acid? (beta-guanidinopropionic acid)
Guanidinopropionic acid is known as a creatine analogue, which essentially means it has a structure very similar to creatine. Guanidinopropionic acid is used with diabetic patients to help improve glucose levels. It does this by increasing the sensitivity of insulin.
Where Does Guanidinopropionic Acid Come From?
Guanidinopropionic acid is a naturally occurring compound that has been detected in animals and humans3. It is not found in food or diet, but rather must be synthetically synthesised for oral applications.
Guanidinopropionic Acid Benefits
Researchers from Michigan were the first to report in 1993 that 3-guanidinopropionic acid possessed both anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity activity in a rodent model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus1. The same study showed that 3-guanidinopropionic acid also elicits an improvement in insulin sensitivity1 and accelerates the disappearance of intravenous glucose1.
GPA has even been shown to reduce hyperglycaemic levels comparable to or even more than metformin which is extensively used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus1, 2.
Negative Side Effects of Guanidinopropionic Acid
While no specific toxicology studies have been conducted on guanidinopropionic acid, it’s important to note that the majority of studies have been performed in animal models. It is therefore prudent to advise against heavy use of guanidinopropionic acid in addition to label instructions.
Guanidinopropionic Acid Recommended Dosages & Timing
It is very hard to find formal published clinical trials using guanidinopropionic acid. This makes it hard to provide sound recommendations and advice on dosage and timing.
Guanidinopropionic Acid Supplements
Guanidinopropionic acid is usually sold in creatine products.
Stacking Guanidinopropionic Acid
Because of its reported anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity activity, guanidinopropionic acid may be used with fat loss formulas.
Guanidinopropionic Acid Safety
There is insufficient research to conclusively say that guanidinopropionic acid is totally safe for use in humans. Until such research is available, guanidinopropionic acid should be used according to guidelines and with caution.
1. Meglasson MD, et al. Antihyperglycemic action of guanidinoalkanoic acids: 3-guanidinopropionic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic KKAı and C57BL6Job/ob mice and increases glucose disappearance in rhesus monkeys. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1993;266(3):1454-1462.
2. Wiernsperger NF, et al. The anti-hyperglycaemic effect of metformin: therapeutic and cellular mechanisms. Drugs 1999;58:31–39.
3. Hiraga Y, Kinoshita T. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of guanidino compounds using ninhydrin reagent. II. Guanidino compounds in blood of patients on haemodialysis therapy. J Chromatogr. 1985;342(2):269-75.